We use a variety of indicators to manage our performance in relation to our top corporate goals. We have defined growth and profitability as key targets within finance-related areas. Our focus therefore is on improving sales, gross profit margin, and operating result (EBIT). These are the financial control parameters that are of particular significance. Moreover, we aim to minimize working capital and improve free cash flow. Our Group's Planning and Management System has been designed to provide a variety of instruments in order to assess current business developments and derive future strategy and investment decisions. This involves the continuous monitoring of key financial indicators within the PUMA Group and a monthly comparison with budget targets. Any deviations from the targets are analyzed in detail and appropriate countermeasures are taken in the event such deviations have a negative impact.
Changes in net sales are also influenced by currency exchange effects. This is why we also state any changes in sales in Euro, the reporting currency, adjusted for currency exchange effects in order to provide information that is relevant to the decision-making process when assessing the revenue position. Currency-adjusted sales volumes are used for comparison purposes and are based on the values that would arise if the foreign currencies included in the consolidated financial statements were not translated at the average rates for the previous reporting year, but were instead translated at the corresponding average rates for the current year. As a result, currency-adjusted figures are not to be regarded as a substitute or as superior financial indicators, but should instead always be regarded as additional information.
We use the indicator free cash flow in order to determine the change in cash and cash equivalents after deducting all expenses incurred to maintain or expand the organic business of the PUMA Group. Free cash flow is calculated from the cash flow from operating activities and investment activities. We also use the indicator free cash flow before acquisitions, which goes beyond free cash flow and includes an adjustment for incoming and outgoing payments that are associated with investments in companies.
We use the indicator working capital in order to assess the financial position. Working capital is essentially the difference between current assets - including in particular inventories and trade receivables - and current liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents, the positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments and current finance and lease liabilities are not included in working capital.
Non-financial performance indicators are of only minor importance as control variables at PUMA.
The calculation of key financial control parameters that PUMA uses are defined as follows:
The recognition of net sales is based on the provisions of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers.
PUMA's gross profit margin is calculated as cost of sales divided by net sales. Cost of sales mainly comprise the carrying amounts of inventory that were recognized as expenses during the reporting period.
PUMA's operating result (EBIT) is the sum of net sales and royalty and commission income, minus cost of sales and other operating income and expenses (OPEX). EBIT is defined as operating result, less depreciation and amortization, provisions and impairment loss, before interest (= financial result) and before taxes. The financial result contains interest income and interest expenses and currency conversion differences and the income from associated companies in the previous year. The EBIT margin is calculated as EBIT divided by net sales.
PUMA's working capital is calculated based on the sum of current assets less the sum of current liabilities. In addition, cash and cash equivalents and positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments are deducted. The market values of derivative financial instruments are recognized in the balance sheet in the items Other Current Assets and Other Current Liabilities not attributable to working capital. Current finance and lease liabilities are also not part of working capital.
In order to present the impact of the first-time application of IFRS 16 Leases on the results of operations of the PUMA Group as transparently as possible, we also present the impact of the new accounting standard on the operating result before interest (= financial result), taxes and depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). EBITDA is calculated based on the operating result (EBIT) adding depreciation and amortization, which may also contain any incurred impairment expenses relating to property, plant and equipment and financial assets. The EBITDA margin is calculated as EBITDA divided by net sales.