The consolidated financial statements were prepared as of December 31, 2019, the reporting date of the annual financial statements of the PUMA SE parent company, on the basis of uniform accounting and valuation principles according to IFRS, as applied in the EU.
Subsidiaries are companies in which the Group has existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities. The main activities are those that have a significant influence on the profitability of the company. Control is therefore considered to exist if the Group is exposed to variable returns from its relationship with a company and has the power to govern those returns through its control of the relevant activities. As a rule, control is based on PUMA’s direct or indirect majority of the voting rights. Consolidation begins at the point in time from which control is possible. It ends when this no longer exists.
The recognition of business combinations is based on the acquisition method. The assets, debts and contingent liabilities that can be identified as part of a business combination are generally stated at their fair value as of the acquisition date, regardless of the size of non-controlling interests. At the time of the acquisition, there is a separately exercisable right to vote on whether the interests of the non-controlling shareholders are valued at fair value or at proportional net asset value.
The surplus of the consideration transferred that exceeds the Group’s share in the net assets stated at fair value is reported as goodwill. If the consideration transferred is lower than the amount of the net assets stated at fair value, the difference is reported directly in the income statement.
Based on the structure of agreements with shareholders holding non-controlling interests in specific Group companies, PUMA is the economic owner when it has a majority stake. The companies are fully included in the consolidated financial statements and, therefore, non-controlling interests are not disclosed. The present value of the capital shares attributable to the non-controlling shareholders and the present value of the residual purchase prices expected due to corporate performance are included in the capital consolidation as acquisition costs for the holdings. The costs directly attributable to the purchase and later differences of the present values of the expected residual purchase prices are recognized in the income statement in accordance with IFRS 3.
With respect to the remaining controlling interests, losses attributable to non-controlling interests are allocated to the latter even if this results in a negative balance in non-controlling interests.
Receivables within the Group are offset against internal liabilities. As a general rule, any set-off differences arising from exchange rate fluctuations are recognized in the income statement to the extent that they accrued during the reporting period. If receivables and liabilities are long-term and capital-replacing in nature, the currency difference is recognized directly in equity and under Other Comprehensive Income.
In the course of the expense and income consolidation, inter-company sales and intra-group income are offset against the expenses attributable to them. Interim profits not yet realized within the Group as well as intra-group investment income are eliminated by crediting them in the income statement.
In addition to PUMA SE, the consolidated financial statements include all subsidiaries in which PUMA SE directly or indirectly holds existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities. At present, control of all Group companies is based on a direct or indirect majority of voting rights.
Associated companies are generally accounted for in the Group using the equity method. As of December 31, 2019, the Group does not comprise any associated companies.
The changes in the number of Group companies (including the parent company PUMA SE) in the financial year 2019 were as follows:
|Formation of companies||3|
|Disposal of companies||5|
The additions to the group of consolidated companies relate to the formation of:
The disposals in the group of consolidated companies relate to the mergers of the following companies within the consolidation scope:
Furthermore, Sport Equipment TI Cyprus Ltd. u.Li., Cyprus was liquidated during the financial year.
During the financial year, Janed, LLC, USA was renamed to PUMA United North America LLC, USA, and the Dobotex companies to "stichd".
The changes in the group of consolidated companies did not have a significant effect on the net assets, financial position and results of operations.
The Group companies are allocated to regions as follows:
|December 31, 2019|
|No.||Companies/Legal Entities||Country||Region/City||Shareholder||Share in Capital|
|2.||Austria PUMA Dassler Ges. m.b.H.||Austria||Salzburg||direct||100%|
|3.||stichd austria gmbh||Austria||Salzburg||indirect||100%|
|4.||PUMA Czech Republic s.r.o.||Czech Republic||Prague||indirect||100%|
|5.||PUMA Denmark A/S||Denmark||Skanderborg||indirect||100%|
|6.||PUMA Estonia OÜ||Estonia||Tallinn||indirect||100%|
|7.||PUMA Finland Oy||Finland||Helsinki||indirect||100%|
|8.||PUMA FRANCE SAS||France||Illkirch-Graffenstaden||indirect||100%|
|9.||stichd france SAS||France||Boulogne Billancourt||indirect||100%|
|10.||PUMA International Trading GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|11.||PUMA Europe GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|12.||PUMA Sprint GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|13.||PUMA Mostro GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||indirect||100%|
|14.||stichd Deutschland gmbh||Germany||Düsseldorf||indirect||100%|
|15.||PUMA Logistik-Verwaltungs GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||indirect||100%|
|16.||PUMA United Kingdom Ltd.||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|17.||PUMA Premier Ltd.||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|18.||STICHD UK LTD||Great Britain||Mansfield||indirect||100%|
|19.||STICHD SPORTMERCHANDISING UK LTD||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|20.||Genesis Group International Ltd.||Great Britain||Manchester||direct||100%|
|21.||Sport Equipment Hellas S. A. of Footwear, Apparel and Sportswear u.Li.||Greece||Athens||direct||100%*|
|22.||PUMA Italia S.r.l.||Italy||Assago||indirect||100%|
|23.||STICHD ITALY SRL||Italy||Assago||indirect||100%|
|24.||PUMA Sport Israel Ltd.||Israel||Hertzeliya||indirect||100%|
|25.||PUMA Malta Ltd.||Malta||St.Julians||indirect||100%|
|26.||PUMA Racing Ltd.||Malta||St.Julians||indirect||100%|
|27.||PUMA Benelux B.V.||Netherlands||Leusden||direkt||100%|
|28.||PUMA Teamwear Benelux B.V.||Netherlands||Leusden||indirect||100%|
|29.||PUMA International Sports Marketing B.V.||Netherlands||Leusden||direct||100%|
|30.||stichd group B.V.||Netherlands||'s-Hertogenbosch||direct||100%|
|31.||stichd international B.V.||Netherlands||'s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|32.||stichd sportmerchandising B.V.||Netherlands||'s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|34.||stichd logistics B.V.||Netherlands||'s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|35.||stichd licensing B.V.||Netherlands||'s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|36.||PUMA Norway AS||Norway||Oslo||indirect||100%|
|37.||PUMA Polska Sp. z o.o.||Poland||Warsaw||indirect||100%|
|38.||PUMA Sports Romania Srl||Romania||Bucharest||indirect||100%|
|40.||PUMA Slovakia s.r.o. v likvidácii||Slovakia||Bratislava||indirect||100%|
|41.||PUMA Sports Distributors (Pty) Ltd.||South Africa||Cape Town||indirect||100%|
|42.||PUMA Sports South Africa (Pty) Ltd.||South Africa||Cape Town||indirect||100%|
|43.||PUMA Iberia S.L.U||Spain||Madrid||direct||100%|
|46.||PUMA Nordic AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|47.||Nrotert Sweden AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|48.||stichd nordic AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|49.||Mount PUMA AG (Schweiz)||Switzerland||Oensingen||direct||100%|
|50.||PUMA Retail AG||Switzerland||Oensingen||indirect||100%|
|51.||stichd switzerland ag||Switzerland||Egerkingen||indirect||100%|
|52.||PUMA Spor Giyim Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S.||Turkey||Istanbul||indirect||100%|
|53.||PUMA Ukraine TOV||Ukraine||Kiev||indirect||100%|
|54.||PUMA Middle East FZ LLC||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||indirect||100%|
|55.||PUMA UAE LLC||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||indirect||100%*|
|56.||PUMA Sports Argentina S.A.||Argentina||Buenos Aires||indirect||100%|
|57.||PUMA Sports Ltda.||Brazil||Sao Paulo||indirect||100%|
|58.||PUMA Canada, Inc.||Canada||Toronto||indirect||100%|
|59.||PUMA United Canada ULC||Canada||Vancouver||indirect||51%|
|60.||PUMA CHILE SPA||Chile||Santiago||direct||100%|
|61.||PUMA SERVICIOS SPA||Chile||Santiago||indirect||100%|
|62.||PUMA México Sport, S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||direct||100%|
|63.||Servicios Profesionales RDS, S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||indirect||100%|
|64.||Importaciones RDS, S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||direct||100%|
|65.||GLOBAL LICENSE STICHD GROUP MEXICO S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||indirect||100%|
|66.||Importationes Brand Plus Licensing S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||indirect||100%|
|67.||Distribuidora Deportiva PUMA S.A.C.||Peru||Lima||indirect||100%|
|68.||Distribuidora Deportiva PUMA Tacna S.A.C.||Peru||Tacna||indirect||100%|
|69.||PUMA Retail Peru S.A.C.||Peru||Lima||indirect||100%|
|70.||PUMA Sports LA S.A.||Uruguay||Montevideo||direct||100%|
|71.||PUMA Suede Holding, Inc.||USA||Westford||indirect||100%|
|72.||PUMA North America, Inc.||USA||Westford||indirect||100%|
|73.||Cobra Golf Incorporated||USA||Carlsbad||indirect||100%|
|74.||PUMA United Canada Holding, Inc.||USA||Wilmington||indirect||100%|
|75.||PUMA United North America LLC||USA||Wilmington||indirect||51%|
|76.||Janed Canada, LLC||USA||New York||indirect||51%|
|77.||PUMA Australia Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|78.||White Diamond Australia Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|79.||White Diamond Properties Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|80.||PUMA China Ltd.||China||Shanghai||indirect||100%|
|81.||stichd china ltd (斯梯起特贸易（上海）有限公司)||China||Shanghai||indirect||100%|
|82.||Guangzhou World Cat Information Consulting Services Company Ltd.||China||Guangzhou||indirect||100%|
|83.||World Cat Ltd.||China||Hongkong||direct||100%|
|84.||Development Services Ltd.||China||Hongkong||direct||100%|
|85.||PUMA International Trading Services Ltd.||China||Hongkong||indirect||100%|
|86.||PUMA Asia Pacific Ltd.||China||Hongkong||direct||100%|
|87.||PUMA Hong Kong Ltd.||China||Hongkong||indirect||100%|
|89.||PUMA Sports India Private Ltd.||India||Bengaluru||indirect||100%|
|90.||PUMA India Corporate Services Private Ltd.||India||Bengaluru||indirect||100%|
|91.||World Cat Sourcing India Private Ltd.||India||Bengaluru||indirect||100%|
|92.||PT PUMA Cat Indonesia Ltd.||Indonesia||Jakarta||indirect||100%|
|93.||PUMA JAPAN K.K.||Japan||Tokyo||indirect||100%|
|94.||PUMA Korea Ltd. (푸마코리아 유한회사)||Korea (South)||Seoul||direct||100%|
|95.||Stichd Korea Ltd||Korea (South)||Incheon||indirect||100%|
|96.||PUMA Sports Goods Sdn. Bhd.||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||indirect||100%|
|97.||PUMA New Zealand Ltd.||New Zealand||Auckland||indirect||100%|
|98.||PUMANILA IT Services Inc.||Philippines||Manila||indirect||100%|
|99.||PUMA Sports SEA Trading Pte. Ltd.||Singapore||indirect||100%|
|100.||PUMA SEA Holding Pte. Ltd.||Singapore||indirect||100%|
|101.||PUMA Taiwan Sports Ltd.||China||Taiwan||indirect||100%|
|102.||World Cat Vietnam Sourcing & Development Services Co. Ltd.||Vietnam||Ho Chi Minh City||indirect||100%|
PUMA Mostro GmbH, PUMA Sprint GmbH, PUMA International Trading GmbH, PUMA Europe GmbH and PUMA Logistik-Verwaltungs GmbH have made use of the exemption provision under Section 264 (3) of the German Commercial Code (HGB).
In general, monetary items in foreign currencies are converted in the individual financial statements of the Group companies at the exchange rate valid on the balance sheet date. Any resulting currency gains and losses are immediately recognized in the income statement. Non-monetary items are converted at historical acquisition and manufacturing costs.
The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries, the functional currency of which is not the euro, have been converted to euros at the average exchange rates valid on the balance sheet date. Expenses and income have been converted at the annual average exchange rates. Any differences resulting from the currency conversion of net assets relative to exchange rates that had changed in comparison with the previous year were adjusted against equity.
The significant conversion rates per euro are as follows:
|Currency||Reporting date exchange rate||Average exchange rate||Reporting date exchange rate||Average exchange rate|
The currency area Argentina has been in a hyperinflationary environment since 2018. The effects on the consolidated financial statements were analyzed in accordance with IAS 29 and IAS 21.42. The application of the aforementioned standards would have resulted in an increase in assets as of December 31, 2019 of € 8.1 million (mainly property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and inventories) and an adjustment of equity of € 8.1 million. Furthermore, the operating result (EBIT) would have decreased by € 2.9 million. The effects were considered insignificant and did not lead to an adjustment in the context of the group accounting.
Financial instruments are classified and recognized in accordance with IFRS 9. Under IFRS 9, the subsequent measurement of financial instruments is carried out according to the classification at “amortised cost” (AC), at “fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL) or at “fair value through other comprehensive income” (FVOCI). The classification is based on two criteria: the Group’s business model for asset management and the question of whether the contractual cash flows of the financial instruments represent “exclusively payments of principal and interest” toward the outstanding principal amount.
PUMA has no financial instruments to be assigned to the business model “Sell” and valued under IFRS 9 at “fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL).
For long-term interests (equity instruments), IFRS 9 under certain conditions allows a measurement at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). If these interests, however, are disposed of or written off due to impairment, the gains and losses from these interests which were not realized up to this point are reclassified to retained earnings in accordance with IFRS 9.
In relation to the accounting of hedge relationships, PUMA made use of the elective right to continue applying the rules of IAS 39 for hedge accounting.
Derivative financial instruments are recognized at fair value at the time a contract is entered into and thereafter. At the time a hedging instrument is concluded, PUMA classifies the derivatives either as hedges of a planned transaction (cash flow hedge) or as hedges of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability (fair value hedge).
At the time when the transaction is concluded, the hedging relationship between the hedging instrument and the underlying transaction as well as the purpose of risk management and the underlying strategy are documented. In addition, assessments as to whether the derivatives used in the hedge accounting compensate effectively for a change in the fair value or the cash flow of the underlying transaction are documented at the beginning of and continuously after the hedge accounting.
Changes in the market value of derivatives that are intended and suitable for cash flow hedges and that prove to be effective are adjusted against equity, taking into account deferred taxes. If there is no complete effectiveness, the ineffective part is recognized in the income statement. The amounts recognized in equity are recognized in the income statement during the same period in which the hedged planned transaction affects the income statement. If, however, a hedged future transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a liability, gains or losses previously recorded in equity are included in the initial measurement of the acquisition costs of the respective asset or liability.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that qualify for and are designated as fair value hedges are recognized directly in the consolidated income statement, together with changes in the fair value of the underlying transaction attributable to the hedged risk. The changes in the fair value of the derivatives and the change in the underlying transaction attributable to the hedged risk are reported in the consolidated income statement under the item relating to the underlying transaction.
The fair values of the derivative instruments used to hedge planned transactions and to hedge the fair value of a recognized asset or liability are shown under other current financial asserts or other current financial liabilities.
PUMA has concluded leases exclusively as lessee.
The leases are respectively identified on an individual contract level. PUMA recognizes for all leases a right-of-use asset and a respective lease liability, with the exception of short-term leases (defined as leases with a term of no more than 12 months) and low-value lease agreements (with a value of less than € 5,000 at contract conclusion). In the case of a short-term lease or low-value lease agreement, the Group depreciates the lease payments on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease agreement as other operating expense. In addition, right-of-use assets are not recognized for intangible assets. PUMA has made use of the elective right and decided not to apply IFRS 16 with regard to leases for intangible assets.
The lease liability at initial recognition is measured at the present value of the not yet paid lease payments at the beginning of the lease agreement. The present value is calculated using the incremental borrowing rate, as the interest rate underlying the lease contract is usually not known.
The following lease payments are included in the measurement of the lease liability:
A number of lease agreements, particularly for real estate properties, contain extension and termination options. When determining agreement terms, all facts and circumstances are taken into account that offer an economic incentive to exercise the extension option or not exercise the termination option. The changes in the term of a lease due to the exercise or non-exercise of such options are only taken into account for the agreement term if they are sufficiently certain.
The lease liability is recognized as a separate line item on the consolidated balance sheet.
The subsequent measurement of the lease liability is done by increasing the carrying amount by adding the accrued interest of the lease liability (using the effective interest method) and by reducing the carrying amount of the lease liability by the lease payments made.
If the term of a lease has changed or if a material event has led to a change in the assessment relating to the exercise of a purchase option, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability by discounting the adjusted lease payments using an updated interest rate and will adjust the corresponding right-of-use asset accordingly.
If lease payments have changed due to index or interest rate changes or due to a change in the expected payments to be made due to a residual value guarantee, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability by discounting the adjusted lease payments using an unchanged discount rate. The corresponding right-of-use asset is adjusted accordingly.
If a lease is changed and the change in the lease is not recognized as a separate lease, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability based on the lease term. As part of this, the changed lease payments are discounted using the updated interest rate at the time the change becomes effective.
The right-of-use assets comprise the respective lease liability as part of initial measurement. Lease installments that are paid before or at the beginning of the lease must be added. Lease incentives received from the lessor must be deducted and initial direct costs must be included. If dismantling obligations exist with regard to the leased assets, they are included in the measurement of the right-of-use assets. The subsequent measurement of the right-of-use assets is at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
The right-of-use assets are generally depreciated over the term of the lease. If the useful life of the asset underlying the lease is shorter, this limits the depreciation period accordingly. Depreciation starts with the commencement of the lease.
The right-of-use assets are recognized as a separate line item in the consolidated balance sheet.
The right-of-use assets are subject to impairment of assets in accordance with IAS 36. This approach is described in the following section "Impairment of Assets".
Variable lease payments that are not dependent on an index or interest rate are not included in the valuation of the lease liabilities. These payments are recognized in the income statement as other expenses as soon as PUMA has received the underlying benefit. This applies primarily to turnover-based rents for retail stores.
As part of the practical expedient, IFRS 16 permits omitting to separate between non-leasing components and leasing components. With regard to land and buildings, PUMA generally does not apply the practical expedient so that the right-of-use assets relating to land and buildings only contain leasing components. With regard to other right-of-use assets (comprising technical equipment & machines and motor vehicles), the practical expedient is generally applied, as a result of which the leasing components and non-leasing components are both recognized.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and bank balances. To the extent that bank deposits are not immediately required to finance current assets, they are invested as risk-free fixed-term deposits, presently for a term of up to three months. The total amount of cash and cash equivalents is consistent with the cash and cash equivalents stated in the cash flow statement.
Cash and cash equivalents are measured at amortised cost. They are subject to the impairment requirements in accordance with IFRS 9 "Financial Instruments". PUMA monitors the credit risk of these financial instruments taking into account the economic situation, external credit rating and/or premiums for credit default swaps (CDS) of other financial institutions. The credit risk from cash and cash equivalents is classified as immaterial, due to the relatively short terms and the investment-grade credit rating of the counterparty, which signals a relative low probability of default.
Inventories are measured at acquisition or manufacturing costs or at the lower net realizable values derived from the selling price on the balance sheet date. The acquisition cost of merchandise is determined using an averaging method. Value adjustments are adequately recorded, depending on age, seasonality and realizable market prices, in a manner that is standard throughout the Group.
Trade Receivables are initially measured at the transaction price and subsequently at amortised cost with deduction of value adjustments. The transaction price according to IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” is the amount of the consideration expected by the company for the delivery of goods or the provision of services to customers, not taking into account the amounts collected on behalf of third parties.
For determining the value adjustments to trade receivables, PUMA uniformly applies the simplified method in order to determine the expected credit losses over the remaining lifetime of the trade receivables (called "lifetime expected credit losses") in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments”. For this, trade receivables are classified by geographic region to suitable groups with shared credit risk characteristics. The expected credit losses are calculated using a matrix that presents the age structure of the receivables and depicts a likelihood of loss for the individual maturity bands of the receivables on the basis of historic credit loss events and future-based factors. The percentage rates for the loss likelihoods are checked regularly to ensure they are up to date. If objective indications of a credit impairment are found regarding the trade receivables of a certain customer, a detailed analysis of this customer’s specific credit risk is conducted and an individual value adjustment is recognized for the trade receivables with respect to this customer. If a credit insurance is in place, it is taken into account in the amount of the value adjustment.
Other assets are initially measured at fair value, taking into account transaction costs, and subsequently measured at amortised costs after deduction of value adjustments.
Other financial assets are classified based on the business model for control and the cash flows of the financial assets. In the Group, financial assets are held exclusively under a business model that provides for “holding” the asset until maturity, in order to collect the contractual cash flows. The subsequent measurement of the Other financial assets is therefore always carried out at amortised cost. The business model “trading” and the category “measured at fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL) are not used.
The non-current assets contain loans and other assets. Non-interest-bearing non-current assets are discounted to present value if the resulting effect is significant.
The investments recognized under non-current financial assets belong to the category “measured at fair value through other comprehensive income” (FVOCI), since these investments are held over the long term for strategic reasons.
All purchases and disposals of non-current investments are recorded on the trade date. Non-current investments are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs. They are also recognized at fair value in subsequent periods if this can be reliably determined. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized in the Other Comprehensive Income, taking into account deferred taxes. The gain or loss on disposal of non-current investments is transferred to retained earnings.
The category “measured at fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL) is not used in the Group.
Property, plant and equipment are measured at acquisition costs, net of accumulated depreciation. The depreciation period depends on the expected useful life of the respective item. The straight-line method of depreciation is applied. The useful life depends on the type of the assets involved. Buildings are subject to a useful life of between ten and fifty years, and a useful life of between three to ten years is assumed for movable assets. The acquisition costs of property, plant and equipment also include interest on borrowings in accordance with IAS 23, insofar as these accrue and the effect is significant.
Repair and maintenance costs are recorded as an expense as of the date on which they were incurred. Substantial improvements and upgrades are capitalized to the extent that the criteria for capitalization of an asset item apply.
Goodwill resulting from a business combination is calculated based on the difference between the transferred consideration and the Group's share in the fair value of the acquired assets and liabilities.
Goodwill amounts are allocated to the Group’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergy effects resulting from the business combination.
An impairment test of goodwill per group of cash-generating units (usually the smallest company level at which goodwill is monitored) is performed once a year and whenever there are indicators of impairment and can result in an impairment loss. There is no reversal of an impairment loss for goodwill. See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
Acquired intangible assets largely consist of concessions, intellectual property rights and similar rights. These are measured at acquisition costs, net of accumulated amortization. The useful life of intangible assets is between three and ten years. Depreciation is done on a straight-line basis.
If the capitalization requirements of IAS 38.57 "Intangible Assets" are met cumulatively, expenses in the development phase for internally generated intangible assets are capitalized at the time they arise. In subsequent periods, internally generated intangible assets and acquired intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. In the Group, own work capitalized is generally depreciated on a straight-line basis over a useful life of 3 years.
The item also includes acquired trademark rights, which are assumed to have an indefinite useful life in light of the history of the brands and due to the fact that the brands are continued by PUMA.
Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not amortised according to schedule but are subjected to an annual impairment test. Property, plant and equipment, right-of-use assets, and other intangible assets with finite useful lives are tested for impairment if there is any indication of impairment in the value of the asset concerned. In order to determine whether there is a requirement to record the impairment of an asset, the recoverable amount of the respective asset (the higher amount of the fair value less costs to sell and value in use) is compared with the carrying amount of the asset. If the recoverable amount is lower than the carrying amount, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss. The test for impairment is performed, if possible, at the level of the respective individual asset, otherwise at the level of the cash-generating unit. Goodwill, on the other hand, is tested for impairment only at the level of a group of cash-generating units. If it is determined within the scope of the impairment test that an asset needs to be written down, then the goodwill, if any, of the group of cash-generating units is written down initially and, in a second step, the remaining amount is distributed proportionately over the remaining assets within the application scope of IAS 36. If the reason for the recorded impairment no longer applies, a reversal of impairment loss is recorded to the maximum amount of the amortised costs. There is no reversal of an impairment loss for goodwill.
Impairment tests are performed using the discounted cash flow method. For determining the fair value less costs to sell and value in use, the expected cash flows are based on corporate planning data. Expected cash flows are discounted using an interest rate in line with market conditions. As part of the fair value determination less cost to sell, no special synergies of cash-generating units are taken into account, and corporate planning data is adjusted to the assumptions of market participants, if required. Moreover, there is a difference between the fair value less costs to sell and the value in use because the costs to sell are also taken into account.
Trademarks with an indefinite useful life are subjected to an impairment test based on the relief-from-royalty method during the financial year or when the occasion arises. Should indications of a value impairment of a self-used trademark arise, the recoverability of the trademark is not only measured individually using the relief-from-royalty method, but the recoverable amount of the group of cash-generating units to which the trademark is to be allocated is also determined.
The inclusion of the right-of-use assets due to the initial application of IFRS 16 resulted in an increase of the carrying amounts to be tested. This has an effect on the impairment tests in 2019. In contrast, the initial application of IFRS 16 also resulted in an increase of the recoverable amount because lease payments were eliminated from Free cash flow. In addition, due to the recognition of the lease liabilities of peer group companies on the balance sheet, their debt ratio has increased and consequently the weighted average capital costs (WACC) have decreased.
Overall, the adjustments did not have any effect on the result of the impairment tests.
See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
In general, these items are recognized at their acquisition cost, taking into account transaction costs and subsequently recognized at amortised cost. Non-interest or low-interest-bearing liabilities with a term of at least one year are recognized at present value, taking into account an interest rate in line with market conditions, and are compounded until their maturity at their repayment amount. Liabilities from finance lease agreements are recorded as of the beginning of the lease transaction at the amount of the present value of the minimum lease amount, or at the lower fair value, and are adjusted by the repayment amount of the lease installments.
The category “measured at fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL) is not used in the Group with regard to financial liabilities.
As a general rule, current financial liabilities also include those long-term loans that have a maximum residual term of up to one year.
In addition to defined benefit plans, some companies apply defined contribution plans, which do not result in any additional pension commitment other than the current contributions. The pension provision under defined benefit plans is generally calculated using the projected unit credit method. This method takes into account not only known pension benefits and pension rights accrued as of the reporting date, but also expected future salary and pension increases. The defined benefit obligation (DBO) is calculated by discounting expected future cash outflows at the rate of return on senior, fixed-rate corporate bonds. The currencies and maturity periods of the underlying corporate bonds are consistent with the currencies and maturity periods of the obligations to be satisfied. In some of the plans, the obligation is accompanied by a plan asset. In that case, the pension provision shown is reduced by the plan asset.
Revaluations, consisting of actuarial profits and losses, changes resulting from use of the asset ceiling and return on plan assets (without interest on the net debt) are immediately recorded under Other Comprehensive Income. The revaluations recorded in Other Comprehensive Income are part of the retained earnings and are no longer reclassified into the income statement. Past service costs are recorded as an expense if changes are made to the plan.
Details regarding the assumed life expectancy and the mortality tables used are shown in chapter 15.
Provisions are recognized if the Group, as a result of a past event, has a current obligation and this obligation is likely to result in an outflow of resources with economic benefits, the amount of which can be reliably estimated. The provisions are recognized at their settlement value as determined on the basis of the best possible estimate and are not offset by income. Non-current provisions are discounted.
Provisions for the expected expenses from warranty obligations pursuant to the respective national sales contract laws are recognized at the time of sale of the relevant products, according to the best estimate in relation to the expenditure needed in order to fulfill the Group’s obligation.
Provisions are also recognized to account for onerous contracts. An onerous contract is assumed to exist where the unavoidable costs for fulfilling the contract exceed the economic benefit arising from this contract.
Provisions for restructuring measures are also recorded if a detailed, formal restructuring plan has been prepared, which has created a justified expectation that the restructuring measures will be carried out by those concerned due to its implementation starting or its major components being announced.
Treasury stock is deducted from equity at its market price as of the date of acquisition, plus incidental acquisition costs. Pursuant to the authorization of the Annual General Meeting, treasury stock can be repurchased for any authorized purpose, including the flexible management of the Company's capital requirements.
PUMA uses cash-settled share-based payments and key performance indicator-based long-term incentive programs.
For share-based remunerations with cash compensation, a liability is recorded for the services received and measured with its fair value upon recognition. Until the debt is cleared, its fair value is recalculated on every balance sheet date and on the settlement date and all changes to the fair value are recognized in the income statement.
During the three-year term of the respective programs, the medium-term targets of the PUMA Group with regard to operating result (EBIT), cash flow and gross profit margin are determined for key figure-based compensation processes and recognized in the income statement as Other Provisions with their respective degree of target achievement.
The Group recognizes sales revenues from the sale of sporting goods. The sales revenues are measured at fair value of the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled from the contract with the customer, taking into account returns, discounts and rebates. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties are not included in the sales revenues. The Group records sales revenues at the time when PUMA fulfills its performance obligation to the customer and has transferred the right of disposal over the product to the customer.
The Group sells footwear, apparel and accessories both to wholesalers and directly to customers through its own retail stores. Meanwhile, the sales-related warranty services cannot be purchased separately and do not lead to services that go beyond the assurance of the specifications at the time of the transfer of risk. Accordingly, the Group records warranties in the balance sheet in conformity with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.
In the case of sales of products to wholesalers, the sales revenue is recorded at the date on which the right of disposal over the products is transferred to the customer, in other words, when the products have been shipped to the specific location of the wholesaler (delivery). After delivery, the wholesaler bears the inventory risk and has full right of disposal over the manner and means of distribution and the selling price of the products. In the case of sales to end customers in the Group’s own retail stores, the sales revenues are recorded at the date when the right of disposal over the products is transferred to the end customer, in other words, the date on which the end customer buys the products in the retail shop. The payment of the purchase price is due as soon as the customer purchases the products.
Under certain conditions and according to the contractual stipulations, the customer has the option to exchange products or return them for a credit. The amount of the expected returns is estimated on the basis of past experience and is deducted from sales revenues by a provision for returns. The asset value of the right arising from the product return claim is recorded under Inventories and leads to a corresponding reduction of Cost of Sales.
The Group records royalty and commission income from the licensing of trademark rights to third parties. Income from royalties is recognized in the income statement in accordance with the invoices to be submitted by the licensees. In certain cases, values must be estimated in order to permit accounting on an accrual basis. Commission income is invoiced if the underlying purchase transaction is classified as realized.
Advertising expenses are recognized in the income statement as of the date of their accrual. In general, promotional expenses stretching over several years are recognized as an expense over the contractual term on an accrual basis. Any expenditure surplus resulting from this allocation of expenses after the balance sheet date are recognized in the form of an impairment of assets or a provision for anticipated losses in the financial statements.
PUMA continuously develops new products in order to meet market requirements and market changes. Research costs are expensed in full at the time they are incurred. Development costs are also recognized as an expense when they do not meet the recognition criteria of IAS 38 "Intangible Assets".
The financial result includes the results from associated companies and interest income from financial investments as well as interest expenses from loans and in connection with financial instruments. Financial results also include interest expenses from lease liabilities, discounted, non-current liabilities and from pension provisions that are associated with business combinations or arise from the measurement of pension commitments.
Exchange rate effects that can be directly allocated to an underlying transaction are shown in the respective income statement item.
Current income taxes are determined in accordance with the tax regulations of the respective countries where the Company conducts its operations.
Deferred taxes resulting from temporary valuation differences between the IFRS and tax balance sheets of individual Group companies and from consolidation procedures, which are levied by the same taxation authority and can be netted, are charged to each taxable entity and recognized either as deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities.
With regard to the leases that were capitalized, tax deduction potential is allocated to the respective right-of-use asset. If temporary differences arise during subsequent valuation from a netting perspective of right-of-use asset and lease liability, deferred tax items will be created, provided the requirements under IAS 12 are met.
Deferred tax assets may also include claims for tax reductions that result from the expected utilization of existing losses carried forward to subsequent years and which is sufficiently certain to materialize. Deferred tax assets or liabilities may also result from accounting treatments that do not affect the income statement. Deferred taxes are calculated on the basis of the tax rates that apply to the reversal in the individual countries and that are in force or adopted as of the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax assets are shown only to the extent that the respective tax advantage is likely to materialize. Value adjustments are recognized on the basis of the past earnings situation and the business expectations for the foreseeable future, if this criterion is not fulfilled.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires some assumptions and estimates that have an impact on the measurement and presentation of the recognized assets and liabilities, income and expenses, as well as contingent liabilities. The assumptions and estimates are based on premises, which in turn are based on currently available information. In individual cases, the actual values may deviate from the assumptions and estimates made. Consequently, future periods involve a risk of adjustment to the carrying amount of the assets and liabilities concerned. If the actual development differs from the expectation, the premises and, if necessary, the carrying amounts of the relevant assets and debts are adjusted with an effect on profit or loss.
All assumptions and estimates are continuously reassessed. They are based on historical experiences and other factors, including expectations regarding future global and industry-related trends that appear reasonable under the current circumstances. Assumptions and estimates are made in particular with regard to evaluating the control of companies with non-controlling interests, the measurement of goodwill and brands, pension obligations, derivative financial instruments and taxes. The most significant forward-looking assumptions and sources of estimation and uncertainty as of the reporting date concerning the above-mentioned items are discussed below.
A review of the impairment of goodwill is based on the calculation of the value in use as a leading valuation concept. In order to calculate the value in use, the Group must estimate the future cash flows from those cash-generating units to which the goodwill is allocated. To this end, the data used were from the three-year plan, which is based on forecasts of the overall economic development and the resulting industry-specific consumer behavior. Another key assumption concerns the determination of an appropriate interest rate for discounting the cash flow to present value (discounted cash flow method). The “relief from royalty method” is used to value brands. See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
Pension obligations are determined using an actuarial calculation. This calculation is contingent on a large number of factors that are based on assumptions and estimates regarding the discount rate, the expected return on plan assets, future wage and salary increases, mortality and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of the commitments made, the assumptions are subject to significant uncertainties. Any change in these assumptions has an impact on the carrying amount of the pension obligations. The Group determines at the end of each year the discount rate applied to determine the present value of future payments. This discount rate is based on the interest rates of corporate bonds with the highest credit rating that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits are paid and the maturity of which corresponds to that of the pension obligations. See chapter 15 for further details, in particular regarding the parameters used for the calculation.
Tax items are determined taking into account the various prevailing local tax laws and the relevant administrative opinions and, due to their complexity, may be subject to different interpretations by persons subject to tax on the one hand and the tax authorities on the other hand. Differing interpretations of tax laws may result in subsequent tax payments for past years; depending on the management’s assessment, these differing opinions may be taken into account using the most probable amount for the respective case.
The recognition of deferred taxes, in particular with respect to tax losses carried forward, requires that estimates and assumptions be made concerning future tax planning strategies as well as expected dates of occurrence and the amount of future taxable income. The taxable income from the relevant corporate planning is derived for this judgment. This takes into account the past financial position and the business development expected in the future. Deferred tax assets on losses carried forward are recorded in the event of companies incurring a loss only if it is highly probable that future positive income will be achieved that can be offset against these tax losses carried forward in the next 5 years. Please see chapter 8 for further information and detailed assumptions.
The assumptions used for estimating derivative financial instruments are based on the prevailing market conditions as of the balance sheet date and thus reflect the fair value. See chapter 25 for further information..
The measurement of the lease liabilities is based on assumptions for the discount rates used, the term of the lease agreements and the deferral of fixed lease payments. To determine the present value of future minimum lease payments, PUMA uses country- and currency-specific interest rates on borrowings with compatible terms. In addition to the basic lease period, the Group includes extension options in the determination of the agreement term if management is sufficiently certain that such an option will be exercised after taking into account all facts and circumstances. The fixed lease payments also include firmly agreed upon minimum amounts for agreements with a predominantly variable lease amount.